The Art Of Elevage
Casks And The Taste Of Wine
From Goatskin To Plastic
Maturation: The Pragmatic Art
Sulphur dioxide
The Purpose Of Elevage
Minimal Intervention
Work In The Cellar
Adjusting Acidity
Topping Up
White Wine Techniques

The new wine will contain solid matter, such as yeast cells, tiny particles of grape skin and proteins, in suspension. If not removed, this will make the wine cloudy and may cause spoiling. A certain amount stays in quality red wines, leading to the deposit in the bottle. The solids will slowly sink to the bottom of the container if the wine is allowed time. Most wines are further clarified by fining. This involves adding a protein substance to the wine which attracts and precipitates solid matter: both then sink to the bottom of the cask or vat, and the clear wine is racked.

Substances used in fining include whipped egg white, bentonite clay, isinglass and blood.

Fining can, however, remove tannin and other desirable ingredients from a wine, and over-fined wine can be deficient in flavour.

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